Thursday, August 22, 2019
General Motors Essay 1. The history, development, and growth of the company over time (e. g. , critical incidents) General Motors (GM) was founded in 1908. William C. Durant brought together 25 independent car companies to form one large corporation. Each company held its own identity as GM operated as central administration office for the 25 divisions. Due to high cost in manufacturing of automobiles, GM was only able to target wealthy customers who could afford cars. Then Henry Ford, owner and founder of Ford Motor Company, revolutionizes the production process of manufacturing cars and takes the lead in the industry. With this new process, Ford becomes GMÃ¢â¬â¢s largest competitor, rapidly growing their market share by mass produce affordable cars, the Model T. GM did not have the same competency to mass produce affordable as efficiently as Ford and their sales plummeted. GM was in a bad situation, producing a wide range of expensive cars for a small target market of middle class customers. From 1910- 1920 Ford grew stronger and wealthier while GM struggled to stay afloat. In 1920, Alfred P. Sloan became the CEO for GM and made major changes to GMÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy to more effectively compete with Ford. Sloan restructured GM to regain its competitive advantage, targeting a different segment in the market. His consolidation of the 25 companies into 5 major self-contained and operated divisions: Chevrolet, Pontiac, Buick, Cadillac, and Oldsmobile proved to be successful. In 1925 GM took the lead in the industry, hurting FordÃ¢â¬â¢s sales of the Model T so bad that Ford had to shut down his factories for several months to redesign his production line and produce new models. GM became the United States car market leader with the largest market share, 70% at its highest. 925 to 1975, GM expanded its product line to all kinds of vehicles to full-size trucks, light weight trucks, and various specialized vehicles such as vans and ambulances. GM also started to vertically integrate and at one point, made more than 65% of its cars components. From 1925 to 1975, GM dominated the United States market holding approximately 65% of domestic sales. Together, GM, Chrysler, and Ford, held more than 90% of the United States market. Due to the global oil crisis and low cost/high quality Japanese cars in 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s, GM lost its lead in the industry. The oil embargo of 1973 revealed the inefficiency of the American Ã¢â¬Å"gas guzzlersÃ¢â¬ . Neither GM nor its American competitors at this that time had the competence to build fuel efficient cars. Japanese cars now entered the American market and not only were they fuel efficient, there were reliable and affordable. In the 1970s and 1980s, demand for large sedans fell and thousands of GM workers got laid off. By the end of 1970s Americans flocked to Japanese economy cars or sleek European luxury cars and ignored high cost and low quality American cars. In 1980, GM still earned 3. 3 billion on more than 60 billion in sales. With its large cash flows, GM was still able to act as a dominant competitor. Roger Smith, GMÃ¢â¬â¢s new CEO aimed to regain GMÃ¢â¬â¢s competitive advantage and launched several major programs to reduce cost and improve quality. By 1990, these programs had cost the company over 100 billion dollars, which at the time, was enough to buy out Toyota and Honda. Smith had the most the difficulty lowering cost due to the high cost labor agreements with the UAW (United Auto Workers). GM invested more than 50 billion to improve and update technology and in 1980 started to develop automated factories using robotics to increase quality and efficiency. GM lacked the competency to effectively operate automated factories and was costing them twice as much in producing parts the traditional way. In 1982, GM created a new division called Saturn to develop low-cost manufacturing skills and produce quality cars by imitating Japanese manufacturing companies. It cost GM 2 billion to build SaturnÃ¢â¬â¢s plant, GM largest construction project in history. Saturns were priced to compete with Honda Civic and Toyota Corolla. Saturn did not meet its quotas and 1991 and lost $800 million dollars. The next year, Saturn sales picked up and were ranked top 10 in customer satisfaction but still had a loss of $700 million. Saturn could not replicate Toyota and Honda efficiency, especially its low cost supply chain. Same as other divisions, Saturn had difficulties reducing costs because high labor cost due to previous agreements with UAW. To learn Japanese manufacturing techniques GM had a joint venture with Toyota in 1983 called new United Motor Manufacturing, Inc. NUMMI). NUMMI reopened a failed plant in California under Japanese management in 1984. By 1986, with the use of flexible work teams, plant productivity was higher than any GM factory and twice as much as with the old GM management. The flexible teams were regularly rotated, trained to perform the jobs of other works in the team, taught the procedures to analyze jobs to improve work procedures, designed all the teamsÃ¢â¬â¢ jobs. This freed managers to focus other tasks. GM quickly implemented this system to all its plants and by 2005; GM was laiming to be the most efficient United States carmaker. However, due to tariffs and high costs involved to bring foreign car to the United States, foreign car makers were eager to open their own car plants in the United States. By 1995, foreign controlled plants were making more than 1. 5 million cars a year in the United States. Although GMÃ¢â¬â¢s market share declined from 50% in 1978 to 35% 1992, it had not reduced it number of plants or downsized its work force significantly. In 1990 Robert Stempel became the new CEO and like Smith, Stempel did not want to down size the company at all. However, an activist GM director, John Smale, set out to stop GMÃ¢â¬â¢s losses and convinced the board to appoint Jack Smith as the new CEO. Smith made drastic changes and down sized the company dramatically. His new strategy for GM was to once again become profitable by aggressively focus on cutting cost, aggressive use of marketing of new designed vehicles that better satisfy customerÃ¢â¬â¢s needs, and create a new more-flexible decentralized organizational structure. He also reduced number of models and platforms in which they were built. In 2000, GM built a $1 billion state-of-the-art manufacturing plant in Michigan to raise quality to Japanese levels. In 2005, GM did receive higher quality level similar to Japanese competitor but could not preform to be profitable due to high labor costs. In another attempt to lower value chain cost, GM closed down it Oldsmobile division in 2004. GM then focused on improving efficiency with its parts, components and suppliers, making various changes there. In 2000, GM, Ford, and Chrysler formed an organization called Covisint to gain power over global suppliers. Toyota launches program that reduces the number of steps needed to make components and car parts reducing its costs by 2. 6 billion. In 1992, it consolidated its nine groups into five and combined all its car divisionsÃ¢â¬â¢ engineering and manufacturing units to eliminate redundancy. Also the five design and technical departments were combined into three to speed product development. To promote and improve coordination between departments, GM changed its organizational structure to a global matrix structure and invested heavily in IT to support this new global matrix structure. With the help of IBM, GM was now able to speed information transfer between its divisions all around the world. In attempts to quickly lower its cost, GM spun off several of its component parts divisions and vertically disintegrated. In 1996, form joint ventures with Isuzu Motors and Suzuki to establish facilities and make specialized engines and transmissions for GM. In 2000, GM acquired a 20% equity stake in Fuji, the manufacturer of Subaru cars and received a new CEO, Rick Waggoner. GM also establishes a strategic alliance with Honda. In 2001, GMÃ¢â¬â¢s new assembly plant in China begins production. In 2002, GM formed an alliance with Russian company. During this time, GM attempts to rapidly grow globally and competes with Ford to acquire premium European carmakers. GM bought many other European carmakers but did not find any to be profitable, only costing them more money and more failures. GM also acquired Daewoo and Hummer brand in hopes to strengthen product line and market share. All failed. In 2008, GM fell with the recession and spun off, sold, or digested many of its global assets. GM asked the government for bailouts and in the end filed for bankruptcy.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
A microscope: An overview 1. Introduction A microscope is an instrument used to investigate tiny objects which cannot be seen by naked eyes. There exist three types of microscopes which are optical microscopes, electron microscopes, and scanning probe microscopes. (1) Six types of microscopes talked in this report are reflected and transmitted light microscope, scanning electron microscopes (SEM), transmission electron microscopes (TEM), focused ion beam (FIB), and atomic force microscope (AFM). 1.1 Reflected light microscopes Reflected light microscope is a type of microscope using visible light and a system of lenses to magnify images of small samples. It is used to examine opaque specimens which will not transmit light and other materials such as ceramics.The reflected light travels through the objective lens, which in this arrangement acts as both a condenser and an objective, and strikes the specimen.It is then reflected off the specimen back up through the objective lens, the head, the eyepieces, and finally to the eye.(2) 1.2 Transmitted light microscope Transmitted light microscope is a type of microscope where the light transmits from a source on the opposite side of the specimen from the objective. Usually the light is passed through a condenser to focus it on the specimen to get very high illumination. (3)After the light passes through the specimen, the image of the specimen goes through the objective lens and to the oculars where the enlarged image is viewed. 1.3 Scanning electron microscope The scanning electron microscope (SEM) is one kind of electron microscope. The SEM utilizes a very fine probing beam of electrons scanning over the specimen to emit a variety of radiations. The signal which is proportional to the amount of radiation leaves an individual point of the sample at any time. The signal obtained from one point will display the information of that point. In practice, the points follow one another with very high speed so that the image of each point becomes an image of a line, and the line move down the screen so rapidly that the naked eye sees a complete image on the computer. SEMs are patterned after reflecting light microscopes and will yield similar information 1.4 Transmission electron microscope A transmission electron microscope (TEM) works much like a slide projector. A projector shines a beam of light through the slide, as the light passes through it is affected by the structures and objects on the slide. These effects result in only certain parts of the light beam being transmitted through certain parts of the slide. This transmitted beam is then projected onto the viewing screen, forming an enlarged image of the slide. TEMs work the same way except that they shine a beam of electrons through the specimen. Whatever part is transmitted is projected onto a screen for the user to see. TEMs are patterned after transmission light microscopes and will yield similar information. 1.5 Focused ion beam A focused ion beam system (FIB) is a relatively new tool that has a high degree of analogy with a focused electron beam system such as a scanning electron microscope or a transmission electron microscope. In SEM and TEM the electron beam is directed towards the sample generating signals that are used to create high magnification images of the sample. The major difference with a focused ion beam system is the use of a different particle to create the primary beam that interacts with the sample. A highly focused ion beam is used instead of electrons in FIB. As the beam scans the surface of the sample, a highly magnified image is created, which allows the system operator to view the samples microscopic features clearly. 1.6 Atomic force microscope The AFM is one of the foremost tools for imaging, measuring and manipulating matter at the nanoscale. The information is gathered by feeling the surface with a mechanical probe. To achieve atomic scale resolution, a sharp stylus (radius ~1-2 nm) attached to a cantilever is used in the AFM to scan an object point by point and contouring it while a constant small force is applied to the stylus. Piezoelectric elements that facilitate tiny but accurate and precise movements enable the very precise scanning. (4) 2. Study of comparison among six kinds of microscopes 2.1 Optical microscopes Optical microscopes, which use visible wavelengths of light, are the simplest and most used. Both transmitted light microscopy and reflected light microscopy need low energy and the microscope itself is much cheaper and smaller than electron microscopes. Compared to electron microscopes, the optical microscopes have another advantage that the image obtained from them is in color. Comparing to reflected light microscope, the transmitted light microscope only works on light transparent specimens but not metal, ceramics and some polymers such as rubber. However sample preparation of transmitted light microscope is relatively complicated. As it requires sample thin enough for the light to go through. This can be done by using a microtome to slice at lower temperature; as well the distortion of the section due to the sample preparation is a problem for observing. (5) 2.2 SEM The SEM has allowed researchers to examine a much bigger variety of specimens no matter it is bulk or thin layer. The scanning electron microscope has many advantages over optical microscopes.The SEM has a large depth of field, which allows more of a specimen to be in focus at one time.The SEM has much higher resolution (~1-5nm). (5)Because the SEM uses electromagnets rather than lenses, much more control in the degree of magnification can be done.All of these advantages, as well as the actual strikingly clear images, make the scanning electron microscope one of the most useful instruments in research today. However, materials that can be examined in the SEM must be vacuum compatible, clean and electrically conducting such as metal. But for non-conducting materials such as ceramic and polymers, gold or carbon coating on the surface of the sample is essential. 2.3 TEM TEM is a technology using a high energy (80-200kV) beam of electrons to transmit through an ultra thin specimen (50-200nm). High resolution (~0.2nm) is the most significant advantage of TEM. (5) However, there are a number of drawbacks to the TEM technique. Many materials require extensive sample preparation to produce a sample thin enough to be electron transparent, which makes TEM analysis a relatively time consuming process. The structure of the sample may be changed during the preparation process. Also the field of view is relatively small, which leads to the region analyzed may not be characteristic of the whole sample. There is potential that the sample may be damaged by the electron beam, particularly in the case of biological materials. 2.4 FIB FIB is usually used to examine metal surfaces. If the sample is non-conductive, a low energy electron flood gun can be used to provide charge neutralization. FIB is inherently destructive to the specimen because when the high-energy gallium ions strike the sample, they will sputter atoms from the surface. Ga atoms will also be implanted into the top few nanometers of the surface making the surface amorphous. (6) These limitations produce noticeable effects when using techniques such as high-resolution lattice imaging TEM or electron energy loss spectroscopy. 2.5 AFM The AFM is a very high-resolution type of scanning probe microscope, with demonstrated resolution of fractions of 1 nm. (4) AFM provides a true three-dimensional surface profile. Additionally, samples viewed by AFM do not require any special treatments such as coating. Most AFM modes can work perfectly in air or even a liquid environment without a need of vacuum. This makes it possible to study not only metal, ceramic, polymer but also biological macromolecules and even living organisms. In principle, AFM can provide higher resolution than SEM. It has been shown to give true atomic resolution in ultra-high vacuum and in liquid environments. High resolution AFM is comparable in resolution to TEM. A disadvantage of AFM compared with the scanning electron microscope (SEM) is the image size. The AFM can only image a maximum height on the order of 10-20 micrometers and a maximum scanning area of around 150 by 150 micrometers. (4) Another inconvenience is that the AFM could not scan images as fast as an SEM, requiring several minutes for a typical scan, while a SEM is capable of scanning at near real-time after the chamber is evacuated. The relatively slow rate of scanning during AFM imaging often leads to thermal drift in the image making the AFM microscope less suited for measuring accurate distances between topographical features on the image. (4) 2.6 Competition 3. Example of applications 3.1 Reflected light microscope Normally, reflected light microscope is used to image metal, ceramic and rubber. Thats the reason why it is also called metallurgical microscope. Nowadays it becomes a fast growing interest; especially in regard to its increasing usefulness in the fluorescence microscopy as well as the rapidly growing semiconductor industry had also led to an increase in the use of reflected light microscopes. (7) 3.2 Transmitted light microscope Polymers can commonly be looked at under the transmitted light microscope, because most of them are transparent or translucent. It can also analyze cell slices obtained from organism. Most of the lab can afford a transmitted light microscope since it is relatively cheap. 3.3 SEM About any scientific field can use an SEM as a research tool. It can be used to look at the crystalline structures of chemical compounds and how their bonds form. A scanning electron microscope is especially useful for looking at the surfaces of materials at an atomic level. 3.4 TEM TEM can do diffraction analysis of small areas by selected area diffraction. High resolution x-ray microanalysis and analysis of crystal defects such as dislocations, stacking faults using diffraction contrast can also be done by using TEM. Another important application is it can image lattice of crystalline materials. (8) 3.5 FIB FIB can be used as Ion beam imaging. The FIB also offers the ability to perform nanopatterning and micromachining respectively, and by instructing the machine to add or remove pertinent features, operator can design and prototype a new micro or nanostructure, modify integrated circuits and cross section specific features to allow failure analysis even in the 3D (TEM sample preparation). FIB is also used for Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). (7) The ejected secondary ions are collected and analyzed after the surface of the specimen has been sputtered with a primary focused ion beam. 3.6 AFM The atomic force microscope (AFM) is one of the most powerful tools for determining the surface topography of native biomolecules at subnanometer resolution. AFM allows biomolecules to be imaged not only under physiological conditions, but also while biological processes are at work. The AFM can also provide insight into the binding properties of biological systems. 4. Summary Characteristics of six different types of microscopes are compared in this article, including sample preparation and technique limitations. Each one has its advantage and disadvantage, so it is necessary to consider comprehensively before choosing, for example, the type of the material, needed information, vacuum compatible, conductivity and sample preparation, etc. References Microscopy and Analysis. [Online] http://www.microscopy-analysis.com/. Reflected Light Microscopes. [Online] http://reflectedlightmicroscopes.com/. Wikipidia. Optical microscope. [Online] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/optical Microscope. W. Richard Bowen, Nidal Hilal. Atomic force microscopy in process engineering : introduction to AFM for improved processes and products. 2009. Geoff West, John Bates, David Ross, D Grandy, J Perkins. MPP242 Microscopy Handouts. Loughborough: The department of materials, 2009. Peter J. Goodhew, Richard Beanland, John Humphreys. Electron microscopy and analysis. s.l.: Taylor Francis Ltd, 2000. The Royal Microscope socieity. [Online] http://www.rms.org.uk/. Brent Fultz, James Howe. Transmission electron microscopy and diffractometry of materials . 2008.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
The Knowledge Which Are Independent Of Our Culture Philosophy Essay It is important to first establish that one cannot analyse beliefs and knowledge together, especially in relation to culture, thus they must be handled differently because they are both separate entities, in how they influence an individuals culture. Culture is the behaviour, and beliefs characteristic of an individual, particular, social ethnic group age group.Ã Ã Culture is the society and values upon which one is raised. It is built upon customs, practices, beliefs and ideas that are instilled in an individual by influential parties such as parents from childhood. These are all derived from imagination, knowledge and cultural values which are developed over time depending on customs and beliefs. These then influence an individuals customs. Also, culture is divided into two, individual culture which is the way one Its the repetition of affirmations that leads to belief. -Mohammed AliÃ Ã This is basically to say that once something is repeated to an individual over time especially by someone in authority over them, they begin to believe and practice the said affirmation. Belief is something that is perceived to be true by an individual but is not common to all individuals. According to Michael Woolman, belief is a tendency to accept principles one has always accepted regardless of evidence to the contrary.Ã Ã Belief can be deemed fallacious because it is relative especially by people who do not share the same beliefs. Belief is also confidence in the truth of what we believe in and it is justified by its working.Ã Ã Belief is also associated with action, ergo, one must practice what they believe in. If I try to doubt all my beliefs, one day I will find that there is at least one whose truth I cannot doubt Rene DescartesÃ Ã Descartes basically means that you cannot doubt your beliefs for there is a reason you believed in the first place. Over time, beliefs evolve from being just mere beliefs and become part of an individuals belief system which is what people believe in, inspired by their culture. Therefore, we cannot have beliefs which are independent of our culture. Culture does not exist in a social vacuum but it inhabits a complex world where the attitudes and beliefs of those around an individual have a massive impact on every aspect of their lives. This means that culture, be it societal or individual is influenced by other beliefs from other cultures which end up an individual, depending on what the already present belief is and how closely related it is to the other culture. Culture determines behaviour, customs, values, habits and tradition and it meditates on every aspect of our lives and experiences.Ã Ã There is a thin line between knowledge and belief in the sense that belief never leads to knowledge, but knowledge leads to belief. It is not possible for one to believe in something they do not know, however, it is possible to know something they do not believe in. For instance, in the late 1800s, the Kikuyu community of Kenya believed in naming people according to what they were good at, akin to the characteristics they exhibited. This is paradigm of a culture believing in something they know. On the other hand, one may possess full knowledge of what a religion other than their own stands for but may not believe in the tenets (the example of Islam).. According to Bastian Sue, Bammi Vivek , Howard Craig, Kitching Julian, Oberg Dennis, Wilkinson David and Salomon Manjula. knowledge is, a sub-category of belief and it is a claim that one accepts regardless of the degree of confidence, emotional intensity and sense of significance one may have. p This is to say that for one to know they must believe. This only applies to the statement Knowledge leads to belief as it may differ in regard to other statements or claims. This is justified because knowledge is information that is factual and based on the truth. Knowledge is the acquaintance of facts, truths and principles as a form of study or investigation also as to have a clear perception as of fact or truth.Ã Ã Also, according to Plato, knowledge is justified as true belief. The greater our knowledge increases, the more our ignorance unfolds. John F Kennedy 3 This quote by J F Kennedy implies that as we learn more, our lack of knowledge expresses how ignorant we are. To some extent, knowledge and belief are somewhat alike in the sense that most of the time they are both based on perception and on what one is told rather that what one knows for a fact. After research, I realised that Knowledge does not have a clear definition of what it is but rather related words like teaching are used to express it. According to geek philosopher Aristotle The one exclusive sign of knowledge is the power of teaching. Among the Ways of Knowing (Woks), Knowledge by Authority and Perception are the most applicable when looking at knowledge in relation to culture. Knowledge by authority is when an individual knows something from someone older, knowledgeable and in authority over them so much so to influence them. For instance, parents and teachers. Authoritative knowledge is usually led by wisdom because such knowledge is thought to have been tested over time. However, it is important not to pass over the fact that authorities may also be wrong. Perception is the actÃ orÃ facultyÃ ofÃ apprehendingÃ byÃ meansÃ oftheÃ sensesÃ orÃ ofÃ theÃ mind; Ã cognition, understanding or the immediateÃ orÃ intuitiveÃ recognitionÃ or appreciation,Ã asÃ ofÃ moral,Ã psychological,Ã or aestheticÃ qualities:Ã insight;Ã intuition; discernment.Ã Ã Knowledge by perception follows the empiricism view that all knowledge is derived from what is observed. This is one Way of Knowing under which belief is and this is because with perception, one makes an observation and sometimes, it may influence what the individual believes in. Belief is the confidence in the truth or existence of something not immediately susceptible to rigorous proof.Ã Ã This implies that more often than not, what is believed cannot be proved. It may also not be the truth it could however be deep trust about something and they tend to buried deep within the subconscious with the result that they trigger automatic reactions and behaviours. We seldom question beliefs because we hold them to be truths which have been repeated over time such that they automatically become truths.Ã Ã This then means that people internalise beliefs from the people around us when we are most vulnerable and this is when we are children. This way of thinking can be fallacious in that it is an error in reasoning. In this case, the question of whether or not we can have beliefs or knowledge that are independent of culture. It is the repetition of affirmations that leads to belief -Muhammad AliÃ Ã According to Famous boxer Muhammad Ali, when something is repeated and stressed to an individual then it becomes part of their belief s. The stressing and repetition of the belief not done by the believer but by another party who influences the believer to believe that what has been said is truth, thus making the belief part the believers conscience. The fact that sometimes, beliefs cannot be proved doesnt make them right, neither does it make them wrong because as much as there is no proof n its truth, there is no proof that it is false. For instance the statement I believe today is Wednesday is only true because it has been repeated to us over and over again to the extent that it is now true although it is not a statement that has be proved right or wrong theoretically and scientifically. Therefore, it is impossible to have beliefs which are independent of our culture because culture and belief work hand in hand to make an individuals values, traditions, values and habits therefore they cannot be separated and one cannot have beliefs which are independent of our culture. It is also important to note that the culture in question here is an individuals culture and not anothers culture, because one cannot believe in a culture that they do not practice because belief is backed by action. In conclusion, it is possible to have knowledge which is independent of our culture but it is not possible to have beliefs which are independent of our culture.
Monday, August 19, 2019
The Mad Hamlet William Shakespeare wrote "Hamlet, Prince of Denmark". "Hamlet, Prince of Denmark" is a tragedy. William Shakespeare was born 1564 and died 1616. William Shakespeare himself, was one of the greatest play writers of all times. Hamlet was an odd character in the play because of the way he acted. Hamlet is intelligent, mad, and selfish. Hamlet is a very intelligent character. Claudius and Polonius planned to send Hamlet to England to be put to death, escorted by Rosencrantz and Guildenstern. Hamlet was supposed to be killed in England by getting beheaded, but he found a way around it. "Ã¢â¬ ¦ My head should be struck off," (V, 2) "Ã¢â¬ ¦Read it at more leisureÃ¢â¬ ¦" (V, 2) and "Ã¢â¬ ¦Devised a new commission, wrote it fair..." (V, 2) shows how Hamlet outsmarted Rosencrantz, Guildenstern, Claudius, and Polonius. Hamlet wrote a different letter that said that Rosencrantz and Guildenstern were to be executed, and therefore cheated death. Hamlet revenged his father's death by murdering Claudius. After Hamlet found out that the sword he and Laertes were struck with was poisoned he then stabbed Claudius with it; "The point envenom'd too? Then, venom, to thy work." (V, 2) From Hamlet's point of view, what he did to Ophelia was intelligent. When Ophelia went mad she said, "T omorrow is Saint Valentine's DayÃ¢â¬ ¦ Never departed more," (IV, 5) and "Young men will do't, if they come to'tÃ¢â¬ ¦ You promised me to wed." (IV, 5) Ophelia was saying that Hamlet told her that they would get married if she had sex with him, and that he never showed any love for her, this was intelligent from Hamlet's or some males point of view. Hamlet was mad throughout the whole play. Hamlet murdered Rosencrantz, Guildenstern, Claudius, Laertes, Polonius, and may have been the reason Ophelia went mad and drowned. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern: "He should the bearersÃ¢â¬ ¦" (V, 2) Claudius: "Ã¢â¬ ¦ Then, venom, to thy work," (V, 2) Laertes: "They bleed on both sidesÃ¢â¬ ¦" (V, 2) Polonius: "Ã¢â¬ ¦Dead for a ducat, dead," (III, 4) Ophelia: "What the fair Ophelia!" (V, 2) At one point Hamlet was so mad and depressed he wanted to kill himself. "To be, or not to be, that is the questionÃ¢â¬ ¦" (III, 1) The worst possible thoughts that Hamlet could have ever thought, he thought incestuously about his mother and himself. He never said that he wanted to be with his mother, but he was just mad that Claudius took the throne from him at the beginning of the play, not that his father was dead.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Blind ManÃ¢â¬â¢s Bluff Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Sometimes in literature, the characters in the story make an important contribution to society. In the novel, Blind ManÃ¢â¬â¢s Bluff, by Sherry Sontag and Christopher Drew, the brave men and women that served in the NavyÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËSecret ServiceÃ¢â¬â¢ did just that. If it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t for them, many more lives would have been lost and more land would be destroyed. They had to endure many hardships and suffer for this country. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã This book is compiled of many missions that happened throughout the Cold War. It shows what the Naval Program was like during that period and how it changed due to advancing technology. These people operated the spy submarines and risked being killed or captured by the Soviets. One example of this is when Commander Charles R. McVean took his crew and tapped a Soviet telephone line at the bottom of the Sea of Okhotsk. This stopped a potential nuclear war. They also started to make submarines that could dive deeper and explore murky depths. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Other submarines are used for surveillance. If we were suspicious about a certain ship, a surveillance submarine would so out and spy on the ship and see what they were up to. These subs played a huge roll in the war. If a ship was transporting weapons or bomb making materials to the enemy, the sub could ratio to US forces and take over the ship. One very brave commander in the war was Norman G. Bessac. He commanded the USS Gudgeon, which was an old diesel engined submarine straight into enemy territory. The Gudgeon was caught and pounded by enemy subs. One of the very important subs in the war was the Cochino. It monitored the development of the atomic bomb that the soviets were making. Unfortunately the Cochino crashed into the Tusk and set the after-battery on fire. This eventually caused the end of Cochino. Nine days after the Cochino sank the Air Force found evidence that the Soviets detonated a nuclear device.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
Hero Speech When we hear the word Ã¢â¬Å"hero,Ã¢â¬ it usually brings up images of super men or super woman. The super powers, sweeping in and saving humanity from villains and natural disasters, but when I hear that word, in my mindÃ¢â¬â¢s eye, I see my father. The word Ã¢â¬Å"heroÃ¢â¬ to me is full of arguments, small, quiet, stable, yet profound ways of making impacts and changing lives. A hero puts his best self forward and uses compassion, kindness, empathy, and non-violence to serve humanity, whether that is the entire world or his immediate family. Service without expectation of material gain or recognition is a true act of heroism.Father and daughter relationship is one of the most important relationships on earth. But many fathers often underestimate their importance in the lives of their daughters, doubting their significance and influence and often withdrawing much too quickly from the essential bond formed in childhood and adolescence. When a father checks out, whe ther that is through physical and emotional absence or abuse of any kind, his daughterÃ¢â¬â¢s sense of self-worth, ability to have healthy relationships, mental health, and ability to strive and achieve can profoundly suffer.My father Jaime Ignacio is the most awesome and very kind man in the universe. I am very proud to have him as my father. Even though we lost my mother a year and eight months ago, he did his responsibility perfectly. I know that he is hurting inside but staying strong for us. On the contrary, there is so much in life that I have learned from my Dad. He was in many ways a simple man, but yet he had strong values that he passes down to me. I am incredibly fortunate to have him as a father, and sometimes, I wonder what I did to deserve this blessing.Throughout my life, my father has been a stable, loving presence, supporting and guiding me through my trials and tribulations, sharing in my triumphs, and being a shining example of how a man should act at all times and in all situations. Even though we have some misunderstanding we still work things out, and never let it become a reason for us to lose our great bond. My father is known for his generosity and understanding. I only hope that someday I can repay him for all he has done and continues to do for me. He is the ONLY HERO IN MY LIFE and no one can replace him. EVER.
The mayor's palace Ã¢â¬â what was once the mayor's palace Ã¢â¬â was a looming smudge in the darkness. The city was quiet under its conquest and curfew, and the hazy milk of the great Galactic Lens, with here and there a lonely star, dominated the sky of the Foundation. In three centuries the Foundation had grown from a private project of a small group of scientists to a tentacular trade empire sprawling deep into the Galaxy and half a year had flung it from its heights to the status of another conquered province. Captain Han Pritcher refused to grasp that. The city's sullen nighttime quiet, the darkened palace, intruder-occupied, were symbolic enough, but Captain Han Pritcher, just within the outer gate of the palace, with the tiny nuclear bomb under his tongue, refused to understand. A shape drifted closer Ã¢â¬â the captain bent his head. The whisper came deathly low, Ã¢â¬Å"The alarm system is as it always was, captain. Proceed! It will register nothing.Ã¢â¬ Softly, the captain ducked through the low archway, and down the fountain-lined path to what had been Indbur's garden. Four months ago had been the day in the Time Vault, the fullness of which his memory balked at. Singly and separately the impressions would come back, unwelcome, mostly at night. Old Seldon speaking his benevolent words that were so shatteringly wrong Ã¢â¬â the jumbled confusion Ã¢â¬â Indbur, with his mayoral costume incongruously bright about his pinched, unconscious face Ã¢â¬â the frightened crowds gathering quickly, waiting noiselessly for the inevitable word of surrender Ã¢â¬â the young man, Toran, disappearing out of a side door with the Mule's clown dangling over his shoulder. And himself, somehow out of it all afterward, with his car unworkable. Shouldering his way along and through the leaderless mob that was already leaving the city Ã¢â¬â destination unknown. Making blindly for the various rat holes which were Ã¢â¬â which had once been Ã¢â¬â the headquarters for a democratic underground that for eighty years had been failing and dwindling. And the rat holes were empty. The next day, black alien ships were momentarily visible in the sky, sinking gently into the clustered buildings of the nearby city. Captain Han Pritcher felt an accumulation of helplessness and despair drown him. He started his travels in earnest. In thirty days he had covered nearly two hundred miles on foot, changed to the clothing of a worker in the hydroponic factories whose body he found newly-dead by the side of the road, grown a fierce beard of russet intensity And found what was left of the underground. The city was Newton, the district a residential one of one-time elegance slowly edging towards squalor, the house an undistinguished member of a row, and the man a small-eyed, big-boned whose knotted fists bulged through his pockets and whose wiry body remained unbudgingly in the narrow door opening. The captain mumbled, Ã¢â¬Å"I come from Miran.Ã¢â¬ The man returned the gambit, grimly. Ã¢â¬Å"Miran is early this year.Ã¢â¬ The captain said, Ã¢â¬Å"No earlier than last year.Ã¢â¬ But the man did not step aside. He said, Ã¢â¬Å"Who are you?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Aren't you Fox?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Do you always answer by asking?Ã¢â¬ The captain took an imperceptibly longer breath, and then said calmly, Ã¢â¬Å"I am Han Pritcher, Captain of the Fleet, and member of the Democratic Underground Party. Will you let me in?Ã¢â¬ The Fox stepped aside. He said, Ã¢â¬Å"My real name is Orum Palley.Ã¢â¬ He held out his hand. The captain took it. The room was well-kept, but not lavish. In one comer stood a decorative book-film projector, which to the captain's military eyes might easily have been a camouflaged blaster of respectable caliber. The projecting lens covered the doorway, and such could be remotely controlled. The Fox followed his bearded guest's eyes, and smiled tightly. He said, Ã¢â¬Å"Yes! But only in the days of Indbur and his lackey-hearted vampires. It wouldn't do much against the Mule, eh? Nothing would help against the Mule. Are you hungry?Ã¢â¬ The captain's jaw muscles tightened beneath his beard, and he nodded. Ã¢â¬Å"It'll take a minute if you don't mind waiting.Ã¢â¬ The Fox removed cans from a cupboard and placed two before Captain Pritcher. Ã¢â¬Å"Keep your finger on it, and break them when they're hot enough. My heat-control unit's out of whack. Things like that remind you there's a war on Ã¢â¬â or was on, eh?Ã¢â¬ His quick words had a jovial content, but were said in anything but a jovial tone Ã¢â¬â and his eyes were coldly thoughtful. He sat down opposite the captain and said, Ã¢â¬Å"There'll be nothing but a burn-spot left where you're sitting, if there's anything about you I don't like. Know that?Ã¢â¬ The captain did not answer. The cans before him opened at a pressure. The Fox said, shortly, Ã¢â¬Å"Stew! Sorry, but the food situation is short.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I know,Ã¢â¬ said the captain. He ate quickly; not looking up. The Fox said, Ã¢â¬Å"I once saw you. I'm trying to remember, and the beard is definitely out of the picture.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I haven't shaved in thirty days.Ã¢â¬ Then, fiercely, Ã¢â¬Å"What do you want? I had the correct passwords. I have identification.Ã¢â¬ The other waved a hand, Ã¢â¬Å"Oh, I'll grant you're Pritcher all right. But there are plenty who have the passwords, and the identifications, and the identities Ã¢â¬â who are with the Mule. Ever hear of Levvaw, eh?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Yes.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"He's with the Mule.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"What? He-Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬Å"Yes. He was the man they called Ã¢â¬ËNo Surrender.'Ã¢â¬ The Fox's lips made laughing motions, with neither sound nor humor. Ã¢â¬Å"Then there's Willig. With the Mule! Garre and Noth. With the Mule! Why not Pritcher as well, eh? How would I know?Ã¢â¬ The captain merely shook his head. Ã¢â¬Å"But it doesn't matter,Ã¢â¬ said the Fox, softly. Ã¢â¬Å"They must have my name, if Noth has gone over Ã¢â¬â so if you're legitimate, you're in more new danger than I am over our acquaintanceship.Ã¢â¬ The captain had finished eating. He leaned back, Ã¢â¬Å"If you have no organization here, where can I find one? The Foundation may have surrendered, but I haven't.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"So! You can't wander forever, captain. Men of the Foundation must have travel permits to move from town to town these days. You know that? Also identity cards. You have one? Also, all officers of the old Navy have been requested to report to the nearest occupation headquarters. That's you, eh?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Yes.Ã¢â¬ The captain's voice was hard. Ã¢â¬Å"Do you think I run through fear. I was on Kalgan not long after its fall to the Mule. Within a month, not one of the old warlord's officers was at large, because they were the natural military leaders of any revolt. It's always been the underground's knowledge that no revolution can be successful without the control of at least part of the Navy. The Mule evidently knows it, too.Ã¢â¬ The Fox nodded thoughtfully, Ã¢â¬Å"Logical enough. The Mule is thorough.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I discarded the uniform as soon as I could. I grew the beard. Afterwards there may be a chance that others have taken the same action.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Are you married?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"My wife is dead. I have no children. Ã¢â¬Å"You're hostage-immune, then.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Yes.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"You want my advice?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"If you have any.Ã¢â¬ A don't know what the Mule's policy is or what he intends, but skilled workers have not been harmed so far. Pay rates have gone up. Production of all sorts of nuclear weapons is booming.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Yes? Sounds like a continuing offensive.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I don't know. The Mule's a subtle son of a drab, and he may merely be soothing the workers into submission. If Seldon couldn't figure him out with all his psychohistory, I'm not going to try. But you're wearing work clothes. That suggests something, eh?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I'm not a skilled worker.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"You've had a military course in nucleics, haven't you?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Certainly.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"That's enough. The Nuclear-Field Bearings, Inc., is located here in town. Tell them you've had experience. The stinkers who used to run the factory for Indbur are still running it Ã¢â¬â for the Mule. They won't ask questions, as long as they need more workers to make their fat hunk. They'll give you an identity card and you can apply for a room in the Corporation's housing district. You might start now.Ã¢â¬ In that manner, Captain Han Pritcher of the National Fleet became Shield-man Lo Moro of the 45 Shop of Nuclear-Field Bearings, Inc. And from an Intelligence agent, he descended the social scale to Ã¢â¬Å"conspiratorÃ¢â¬ - a calling which led him months later to what had been Indbur's private garden, In the garden, Captain Pritcher consulted the radometer in the palm of his hand. The inner warning field was still in operation, and he waited. Half an hour remained to the life of the nuclear bomb in his mouth. He rolled it gingerly with his tongue. The radometer died into an ominous darkness and the captain advanced quickly. So far, matters had progressed well. He reflected objectively that the life of the nuclear bomb was his as well; that its death was his death Ã¢â¬â and the Mule's death. And the grand climacteric of a four-month's private war would be reached; a war that had passed from flight through a Newton factory For two months, Captain Pritcher wore leaden aprons and heavy face shields, till all things military had been frictioned off his outer bearing. He was a laborer, who collected his pay, spent his evenings in town, and never discussed politics. For two months, he did not see the Fox. And then, one day, a man stumbled past his bench, and there was a scrap of paper in his pocket. The word Ã¢â¬Å"FoxÃ¢â¬ was on it. He tossed it into the nuclear chamber, where it vanished in a sightless puff, sending the energy output up a millimicrovolt Ã¢â¬â and turned back to his work. That night he was at the Fox's home, and took a hand in a game of cards with two other men he knew by reputation and one by name and face. Over the cards and the passing and repassing tokens, they spoke. The captain said, Ã¢â¬Å"It's a fundamental error. You live in the exploded past. For eighty years our organization has been waiting for the correct historical moment. We've been blinded by Seldon's psychohistory, one of the first propositions of which is that the individual does not count, does not make history, and that complex social and economic factors override him, make a puppet out of him.Ã¢â¬ He adjusted his cards carefully, appraised their value and said, as he put out a token. Ã¢â¬Å"Why not kill the Mule?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Well, now, and what good would that do?Ã¢â¬ demanded the man at his left, fiercely. Ã¢â¬Å"You see,Ã¢â¬ said the captain, discarding two cards, Ã¢â¬Å"that's the attitude. What is one man Ã¢â¬â out of quadrillions. The Galaxy won't stop rotating because one man dies. But the Mule is not a man, he is a mutant. Already, he had upset Seldon's plan, and if you'll stop to analyze the implications, it means that he Ã¢â¬â one man Ã¢â¬â one mutant Ã¢â¬â upset all of Seldon's psychohistory. If he had never lived, the Foundation would not have fallen. If he ceased living, it would not remain fallen. Ã¢â¬Å"Come, the democrats have fought the mayors and the traders for eighty years by connivery. Let's try assassination.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"How?Ã¢â¬ interposed the Fox, with cold common sense. The captain said, slowly, Ã¢â¬Å"I've spent three months of thought on that with no solution. I came here and had it in five minutes.Ã¢â¬ He glanced briefly at the man whose broad, pink melon of a face smiled from the place at his right. Ã¢â¬Å"You were once Mayor Indbur's chamberlain. I did not know you were of the underground,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Nor I, that you were.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Well, then, in your capacity as chamberlain you periodically checked the working of the alarm system of the palace.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I did.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"And the Mule occupies the palace now.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"So it has been announced Ã¢â¬â though he is a modest conqueror who makes no speeches, proclamations nor public appearances of any sort.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"That's an old story, and affects nothing. You, my ex-chamberlain, are all we need.Ã¢â¬ The cards were shown and the Fox collected the stakes. Slowly, he dealt a new hand. The man who had once been chamberlain picked up his cards, singly. Ã¢â¬Å"Sorry, captain. I checked the alarm system, but it was routine. I know nothing about it.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I expected that, but your mind carries an eidetic memory of the controls if it can be probed deeply enough Ã¢â¬â with a psychic probe.Ã¢â¬ The chamberlain's ruddy face paled suddenly and sagged. The cards in his hand crumpled under sudden fist-pressure, Ã¢â¬Å"A psychic probe?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"You needn't worry,Ã¢â¬ said the captain, sharply. Ã¢â¬Å"I know how to use one. It will not harm you past a few days' weakness. And if it did, it is the chance you take and the price you pay. There are some among us, no doubt, who from the controls of the alarm could determine the wavelength combinations. There are some among us who could manufacture a small bomb under time-control and I myself will carry it to the Mule.Ã¢â¬ The men gathered over the table. The captain announced, Ã¢â¬Å"On a given evening, a riot will start in Terminus City in the neighborhood of the palace. No real fighting. Disturbance Ã¢â¬â then flight. As long as the palace guard is attractedÃ¢â¬ ¦ or, at the very least, distracted-Ã¢â¬Å" From that day for a month the preparations went on, and Captain Han Pritcher of the National Fleet having become conspirator descended further in the social scale and became an Ã¢â¬Å"assassin.Ã¢â¬ Captain Pritcher, assassin, was in the palace itself, and found himself grimly pleased with his psychology. A thorough alarm system outside meant few guards within. In this case, it meant none at all. The floor plan was clear in his mind. He was a blob moving noiselessly up the well-carpeted ramp. At its head, he flattened against the wall and waited. The small closed door of a private room was before him. Behind that door must be the mutant who had beaten the unbeatable. He was early Ã¢â¬â the bomb had ten minutes of life in it. Five of these passed, and still in all the world there was no sound. The Mule had five minutes to live Ã¢â¬â So had Captain Pritcher- He stepped forward on sudden impulse. The plot could no longer fail. When the bomb went, the palace would go with it Ã¢â¬â all the palace. A door between Ã¢â¬â ten yards between Ã¢â¬â was nothing. But he wanted to see the Mule as they died together. In a last, insolent gesture, he thundered upon the door. And it opened and let out the blinding light. Captain Pritcher staggered, then caught himself. The solemn man, standing in the center of the small room before a suspended fish bowl, looked up mildly. His uniform was a somber black, and as he tapped the bowl in an absent gesture, it bobbed quickly and the feather-finned, orange and vermilion fish within darted wildly. He said, Ã¢â¬Å"Come in, captain!Ã¢â¬ To the captain's quivering tongue the little metal globe beneath was swelling ominously Ã¢â¬â a physical impossibility, the captain knew. But it was in its last minute of life. The uniformed man said, Ã¢â¬Å"You had better spit out the foolish pellet and free yourself for speech. It won't blast.Ã¢â¬ The minute passed and with a slow, sodden motion the captain bent his head and dropped the silvery globe into his palm. With a furious force it was flung against the wall. It rebounded with a tiny, sharp clangor, gleaming harmlessly as it flew. The uniformed man shrugged. Ã¢â¬Å"So much for that, then. It would have done you no good in any case, captain. I am not the Mule. You will have to be satisfied with his viceroy.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"How did you know?Ã¢â¬ muttered the captain, thickly. Ã¢â¬Å"Blame it on an efficient counter-espionage system. I can name every member of your little gang, every step of their planning-Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬Å"And you let it go this far?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Why not? It has been one of my great purposes here to find you and some others. Particularly you. I might have had you some months ago, while you were still a worker at the Newton Bearings Works, but this is much better. If you hadn't suggested the main outlines of the plot yourself, one of my own men would have advanced something of much the same sort for you. The result is quite dramatic, and rather grimly humorous.Ã¢â¬ The captain's eyes were hard. Ã¢â¬Å"I find it so, too. Is it all over now?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Just begun. Come, captain, sit down. Let us leave heroics for the fools who are impressed by it. Captain, you are a capable man. According to the information I have, you were the first on the Foundation to recognize the power of the Mule. Since then you have interested yourself, rather daringly, in the Mule's early life. You have been one of those who carried off his clown, who, incidentally, has not yet been found, and for which there will yet be full payment. Naturally, your ability is recognized and the Mule is not of those who fear the ability of his enemies as long as he can convert it into the ability of a new friend.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Is that what you're hedging up to? Oh, no!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Oh, yes! It was the purpose of tonight's comedy. You are an intelligent man, yet your little conspiracies against die Mule fail humorously. You can scarcely dignify it with the name of conspiracy. Is it part of your military training to waste ships in hopeless actions?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"One must first admit them to be hopeless.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"One will,Ã¢â¬ the viceroy assured him, gently. Ã¢â¬Å"The Mule has conquered the Foundation, It is rapidly being turned into an arsenal for accomplishment of his greater aims.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"What greater aims?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"The conquest of the entire Galaxy. The reunion of all the tom worlds into a new Empire. The fulfillment, you dull-witted patriot, of your own Seldon's dream seven hundred years before he hoped to see it. And in the fulfillment, you can help us.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I can, undoubtedly. But I won't, undoubtedly.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I understand,Ã¢â¬ reasoned the viceroy, Ã¢â¬Å"that only three of the Independent Trading Worlds yet resist. They will not last much longer. It will be the last of all Foundation forces. You still hold out.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Yes.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Yet you won't. A voluntary recruit is the, most efficient. But the other kind will do. Unfortunately, the Mule is absent. He leads the fight, as always, against the resisting Traders. But he is in continual contact with us. You will not have to wait long.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"For what?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"For your conversion. Ã¢â¬Å"The Mule,Ã¢â¬ said the captain, frigidly, Ã¢â¬Å"will find that beyond his ability.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"But he won't. I was not beyond it. You don't recognize me? Come, you were on Kalgan, so you have seen me. I wore a monocle, a fur-lined scarlet robe, a high-crowned hat-Ã¢â¬Å" The captain stiffened in dismay. Ã¢â¬Å"You were the warlord of Kalgan.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Yes. And now I am the loyal viceroy of the Mule. You see, he is persuasive.Ã¢â¬